TMP070 TMP089 Pump TMM070 TMM089 Motor TMG51.2 TMG61.2 TMG71.2 CZPT Sundstrand Transit Mixer Gearbox.
The hydrostatic transmission developed by CZPT for transit mixers, comprising the axial piston variable displacement pump TMP and the axial piston fixed displacement motor TMM, is based on more than 30 years’ experience in the world wide use of pumps/motors in transit mixers.
The demonstrable reliability of the rotational group was decisive in continuing to use these in the new and innovative drive concept.
In the TMP and TMM the connection sizes (fixing flange/shaft) from series 20 were adopted. The TMP shaft is designed at the factory with the usual DIN connection flange 100 mm as standard. The requirements of the market with regard to reducing the overall volume, weight and noise, and also the electrical pump displacement control – in connection with the introduction of trucks with EURO 2 (3) diesel engines – have been taken into account accordingly.
Details regarding the choice of hydraulic fluid:
The correct choice of hydraulic fluid requires knowledge of the operating temperature in relation to the ambient temperature: in a closed circuit the circuit temperature. The hydraulic fluid should be chosen so that the operating viscosity in the operating temperature range is within the optimum range – the shaded area of the selection diagram. We recommended that the higher viscosity class be selected in each case. Example: At an ambient temperature of X °C an operating temperature of 58 °C is set. In the optimum operating viscosity range (shaded area) this corresponds to the viscosity classes VG45 or VG65; to be selected: VG65. Please note: The case drain temperature, which is affected by pressure and speed, is always higher than the circuit temperature. At no point in the system may the temperature be higher than 115 °C. If the above conditions cannot be maintained due to extreme operating parameters, please consult us.
|Hardened Tooth Surface
|Conical – Cylindrical Gear
Impact of Gear Tooth Design and Profile on the Efficiency of Planetary Gearboxes
The design and profile of gear teeth have a significant impact on the efficiency of planetary gearboxes:
- Tooth Profile: The tooth profile, such as involute, cycloid, or modified profiles, affects the contact pattern and load distribution between gear teeth. An optimized profile minimizes stress concentration and ensures smooth meshing, contributing to higher efficiency.
- Tooth Shape: The shape of gear teeth influences the amount of sliding and rolling motion during meshing. Gear teeth designed for more rolling and less sliding motion reduce friction and wear, enhancing overall efficiency.
- Pressure Angle: The pressure angle at which gear teeth engage affects the force distribution and efficiency. Larger pressure angles can lead to higher efficiency due to improved load sharing, but they may require more space.
- Tooth Thickness and Width: Optimized tooth thickness and width contribute to distributing the load more evenly across the gear face. Proper sizing reduces stress and increases efficiency.
- Backlash: Backlash, the gap between meshing gear teeth, impacts efficiency by causing vibrations and energy losses. Properly controlled backlash minimizes these effects and improves efficiency.
- Tooth Surface Finish: Smoother tooth surfaces reduce friction and wear. Proper surface finish, achieved through grinding or honing, enhances efficiency by reducing energy losses due to friction.
- Material Selection: The choice of gear material influences wear, heat generation, and overall efficiency. Materials with good wear resistance and low friction coefficients contribute to higher efficiency.
- Profile Modification: Profile modifications, such as tip and root relief, optimize tooth contact and reduce interference. These modifications minimize friction and increase efficiency.
In summary, the design and profile of gear teeth play a crucial role in determining the efficiency of planetary gearboxes. Optimal tooth profiles, shapes, pressure angles, thicknesses, widths, surface finishes, and material selections all contribute to reducing friction, wear, and energy losses, resulting in improved overall efficiency.
Enhancing Wind Turbine System Performance with Planetary Gearboxes
Planetary gearboxes play a crucial role in enhancing the performance and efficiency of wind turbine systems. Here’s how they contribute:
1. Speed Conversion: Wind turbines operate optimally at specific rotational speeds to generate electricity efficiently. Planetary gearboxes allow for speed conversion between the low rotational speed of the wind turbine rotor and the higher speed required by the generator. This speed adaptation ensures the generator operates at its peak efficiency, resulting in maximum power generation.
2. Torque Amplification: Wind turbine blades may experience varying wind speeds, which result in fluctuating torque loads. Planetary gearboxes can amplify the torque generated by the rotor blades before transmitting it to the generator. This torque multiplication helps maintain stable generator operation even during wind speed variations, improving overall energy production.
3. Compact Design: Wind turbines are often installed in locations with limited space, such as offshore platforms or densely populated areas. Planetary gearboxes offer a compact design, allowing for efficient power transmission within a small footprint. This compactness is vital for accommodating gearboxes in the limited nacelle space of the wind turbine.
4. Load Distribution: Wind turbines are subjected to varying wind conditions, including gusts and turbulence. Planetary gearboxes distribute the load evenly among multiple planet gears, reducing stress and wear on individual components. This balanced load distribution improves gearbox durability and reliability.
5. Efficiency Optimization: Planetary gearboxes are known for their high efficiency due to their parallel axis arrangement and multiple gear stages. The efficient power transmission minimizes energy losses within the gearbox, resulting in more power being converted from wind energy to electricity.
6. Maintenance and Reliability: The robust construction of planetary gearboxes contributes to their durability and longevity. Wind turbines often operate in challenging environments, and the reliability of the gearbox is crucial for minimizing maintenance and downtime. Planetary gearboxes’ low maintenance requirements and ability to handle varying loads contribute to the overall reliability of wind turbine systems.
7. Variable Speed Control: Some wind turbines use variable-speed operation to optimize power generation across a range of wind speeds. Planetary gearboxes can facilitate variable speed control by adjusting the gear ratio to match the wind conditions. This flexibility improves energy capture and reduces stress on turbine components.
8. Adaptation to Turbine Size: Planetary gearboxes are available in various sizes and gear ratios, making them adaptable to different turbine sizes and power outputs. This versatility allows wind turbine manufacturers to select gearboxes that align with specific project requirements.
Overall, planetary gearboxes play a pivotal role in optimizing the performance, efficiency, and reliability of wind turbine systems. Their ability to convert speed, amplify torque, and distribute loads makes them a key component in harnessing wind energy for clean and sustainable electricity generation.
Design Principles and Functions of Planetary Gearboxes
Planetary gearboxes, also known as epicyclic gearboxes, are a type of gearbox that consists of one or more planet gears that revolve around a central sun gear, all contained within an outer ring gear. The design principles and functions of planetary gearboxes are based on this unique arrangement:
- Sun Gear: The sun gear is positioned at the center and is connected to the input shaft. It transmits power from the input source to the planetary gears.
- Planet Gears: Planet gears are small gears that rotate around the sun gear. They are typically mounted on a carrier, which is connected to the output shaft. The interaction between the planet gears and the sun gear creates both speed reduction and torque amplification.
- Ring Gear: The outer ring gear is stationary and surrounds the planet gears. The teeth of the planet gears mesh with the teeth of the ring gear. The ring gear serves as the housing for the planet gears and provides a fixed outer reference point.
- Function: Planetary gearboxes offer various gear reduction ratios by altering the arrangement of the input, output, and planet gears. Depending on the configuration, the sun gear, planet gears, or ring gear can serve as the input, output, or stationary element. This flexibility allows planetary gearboxes to achieve different torque and speed combinations.
- Gear Reduction: In a planetary gearbox, the planet gears rotate while also revolving around the sun gear. This double motion creates multiple gear meshing points, distributing the load and enhancing torque transmission. The output shaft, connected to the planet carrier, rotates at a lower speed and higher torque than the input shaft.
- Torque Amplification: Due to the multiple points of contact between the planet gears and the sun gear, planetary gearboxes can achieve torque amplification. The arrangement of gears allows for load sharing and distribution, leading to efficient torque transmission.
- Compact Size: The compact design of planetary gearboxes, achieved by stacking the gears concentrically, makes them suitable for applications where space is limited.
- Multiple Stages: Planetary gearboxes can be designed with multiple stages, where the output of one stage becomes the input of the next. This arrangement allows for high gear reduction ratios while maintaining a compact size.
- Controlled Motion: By controlling the arrangement of the gears and their rotation, planetary gearboxes can provide different motion outputs, including forward, reverse, and even variable speeds.
Overall, the design principles of planetary gearboxes allow them to provide efficient torque transmission, compact size, high gear reduction, and versatile motion control, making them well-suited for various applications in industries such as automotive, robotics, aerospace, and more.
editor by CX 2023-09-05